Learn all about the three sounds of suffix -ed, including the rules for when each sound is used within base words. Then grab yourself a free printable poster that will reinforce the rules for correctly pronouncing -ed sound words!
All About Suffix -ED
When you add the suffix -ed to a regular verb, it makes the word past tense. Thankfully, the spelling of past tense -ed is simple enough, so students learn to add the letters –ed to make the verb past tense.
However, pronunciation can be tricky! That’s why these spelling rules need to be explicitly taught.
Depending on the base word, we have rules for correctly pronouncing the word. If children learn the rules, they can know how to pronounce the word correctly.
Voiced vs. Voiceless
In order for students to learn these rules, they first need to be familiar with the terms ‘voiced’ and ‘voiceless’ sounds.
🗣Voiced means the vocal cords are turned on.
An easy way to check to see a sound is voiced is to say the sound with your hands on your vocal cords. If you feel the vocal cords vibrating, then the sound is voiced.
Voiced sounds include: a, e, i, o, u, b, d, g, j, l, m, n, r, v, w, y, z, th (the).
👤Voiceless means that the vocal cords are not turned on and only air comes out when saying the letter sound.
Unvoiced sounds include: f, h, k, p, s, t, x, qu, ch, sh, th (with)
3 Sounds of -ED
Suffix -ed can make three sounds: /ed/ /d/ and /t/. Students should learn the rules for each pronunciation.
Why teach these rules? Learning the -ed rules will help children read words correctly with proper pronunciation, and knowing the rules will also help with spelling.
Often times children may hear a /t/ or /d/ at the end of a past tense verb, so when they attempt to spell the word they add the letter t or the letter d. Knowing that suffix -ed can say all three sounds will help kids to spell words correctly.
Rule: The /ed/ sound comes after the letter t or d at the end of the base word.
Examples: listed, ended, landed, chatted, twisted, tilted, acted, rented.
Rule: The /d/ sound is made when the final sound of the base word is voiced.
Examples: filmed, grilled, banged, smiled, saved, yelled, raised, sailed.
Rule: The /t/ sound is made when the final sound of the base word is unvoiced.
Examples: masked, hushed, jumped, fished, skipped, asked, kicked.
📃 3 Sounds of -ED Poster
Grab this fun, bright poster that clearly outlines the three ways to pronounce suffix -ed, along with the rules and examples.
👌Tip: Print on poster-size paper and hang as an anchor for your students. You can also print it on regular paper and staple it inside your student’s phonics notebook as a personal reference.
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